Middleton Hall – from country pile to nursing home

In 1707, as the Union of Parliaments was bringing together Scotland and England, the Rev. George Barclay was utilising the stone from the ruined Strathbrock Castle to build himself an impressive pile in Uphall called Middleton. Over the next 200 years the property changed hands several times, with some of the most notable early inhabitants being David Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan and the Threipland family.

bowling club badge
Middleton Hall Bowling Club badge, bearing a badger on the top right of the shield. The badger represents Strathbrock Castle, brock being a Scots word for badger.

In the early 1840s it was purchased by Robert W. Maxwell, who sought to make good use of the 53 acres of land, leading to it being described as having ‘splendid gardens and hothouses’, as well as utilising the conservatory. When Captain William Hankey bought the house in 1851 he

william hankey
Captain William Hankey (in foreground, seated on horse and turning) living the life of a landed gent in the 19th century

filled it with ‘the choicest plants and flowers’. Even by the end of the century it was still regarded as ‘one of the prettiest glimpses of greenwood in the whole parish … a favourite popular resort on summer Sunday afternoons during the season of fruits and flowers’.

Captain John Pender took over the property in 1868 and almost immediately the surrounding lands began to divulge their worth – when workmen were boring for water, natural gas was discovered. On being exposed to a flame, it blazed up and remained lit until it was extinguished the following day. Pender was also instrumental in testing the geology of his new lands, discovering, for example, blackband ironstone in 1868.

james pender
James Pender, owner of Middleton at the beginning of the 20th century

When Pender died in 1896 the property passed to his son, James, who, in 1899, sold the property to the Broxburn Oil Company. For 21 years the property was let out, first as a ‘lunatic asylum’ and later to house convalescing First World War soldiers.

Upon the amalgamation of the six major shale oil companies into Scottish Oils Ltd in 1920, the property was taken over for use as the headquarters of this company, with a third storey being added in 1939. It housed office space and a laboratory, as well as being a training centre for non-mining apprentices.

middleton hall 1924
Middleton Hall soon after Scottish Oils Ltd began to utilise it as office space, 1924
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The third storey being added to Middleton Hall, September 1939
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Middleton Hall after the addition of its extension
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The laboratory at Middleton Hall
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Staff outside Middleton Hall, 1950

It remained as such until 1967 when it was taken over by Motherwell Bridge Thermal Ltd for use as office space. Twenty years later it became a nursing home and has remained so ever since.

I wonder if the residents know of their home’s rich history?

Crossgreen Model Lodging House

The rise and fall of markets, the boom and bust of business, led to great variation in the demand for labour in the shale oil industry. During the good years, an army of itinerant general labourers was called upon to carry out much of the dirty work around the mines and refineries. A few put down roots in West Lothian, but most would move on at times when trade declined, tramping the country and following the work.
In the early days of the shale oil industry, a shortage of accommodation often required many single working men to board with families, where they might share a humble home of one or two rooms with husband, wife and a cohort of children. While such “boarders” often had a trade and were in steady employment, itinerant labourers might be “lodgers”, staying in common lodging houses paid for by the night, and offering the most basic of accommodation.

The 1891 census for the parish of Uphall (which included both the Uphall and Broxburn oil works) lists 846 of the 8,644 residents as “boarders” or “lodgers”. 86 were listed as residents of the Crossgreen common lodging house in Uphall. On the night of the census, residents of the Crossgreen lodging house ranged in age between 17 and 80, the majority being in their thirties. 36 listed their place of birth as Ireland, many others came from rural Scotland.

On the 1896 OS map, the most sizeable building in the small hamlet of Crossgreen lay immediately west of the Ecclesmachan road. It might be presumed that this was the original Crossgreen farm house, and that it later served as the common lodging house. Thomson Court, Uphall now stands on this site. A court case of 1891 records that the common lodging house could accommodate 90 residents in four rooms, there being 45 beds, each shared by two men, at a charge of 4d. each per night.

Throughout the 1890’s Crossgreen lodgers featured regularly in the courts. On several occasions men were charged for assaulting the lodging house keeper; there were frequent bloody fights, many petty thefts, incidents of drunken and disorderly conduct, and on one occasion, the malicious trampling of carrots in a neighbouring garden. In 1899, Linlithgowshire Council Council voted not to renew the licence of the lodging house.

Soon after the turn of the century, the Uphall Lodging House Company was formed to construct a new model lodging house at a site in Crossgreen a little to the north of the old lodging house, described as “not far from the centre of the village, yet sufficiently retired for the purposes” The model lodging house, opened in 1903, had a hundred beds in two main dormitories, separated into cubicles in the manner of an army barracks. There was a dining hall and kitchen, in which lodgers could could their own meals, a smoking room and a reading room “provided with literature and other aids to amusement”.

This enlightened provision seems to have deterred unruly behaviour as many fewer reports of misdoings by Crossgreen lodgers subsequently appeared in the press. The “model” continued in business until 1946, and when plans to the sell to the local authority fell through, remaining residents were moved to accommodation in Broxburn. The building then became the Crossgreen works of Hunter and Foulis, printers of educational books. Following closure of the printing works (in the 1970’s?), the spacious building now serves the community once again as Strathbrock church hall.

Tracing Your House at the Shale Museum

At the Shale Museum we hold dozens of dispositions – legal documents detailing the sale of property. The majority of the dispositions we hold date from the tail end of the shale industry (and the years immediately after the closure of the last pits) and show the houses, formerly owned by the shale companies, being sold off to private individuals.

We are currently scanning these documents and are uploading about 20 per week. They are on the Museum’s website. You’ll notice that the names are blacked out, or redacted, and that’s because the individuals named are protected by data protection laws. We can release the names within the documents, but you’ll have to prove that they are either, dead, or related to you. Continue reading “Tracing Your House at the Shale Museum”